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巴黎人贵宾厅

一个可访问的世界对每个人来说都是一个更好的世界.

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宇宙的联觉

将太空的影像转化为音乐,可以让宇宙更容易接近,更美丽.

详见《巴黎人贵宾厅公报》

设计的背后:这些贯穿页面的方框说明了一个可访问网页所需的一些元素.

了解更多有关数码可访问性和使网页更容易访问的技巧, 探索巴黎人贵宾厅的资源 数字可访问性服务.

可访问性的历史

在ADA之前, Americans with disabilities had been excluded from society … and generally barred from social p艺术icipation by lack of accessibility and stigma.”

迈克尔·阿什利·斯坦, 巴黎人贵宾厅法学院残疾项目的联合创始人和执行董事

迈克尔·斯坦微笑

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美国残疾人法(ADA)

迈克尔·阿什利·斯坦, 巴黎人贵宾厅法学院残疾项目的联合创始人和执行董事, talks about the significance of the ADA over the last 30 years, 以及它对它所保护的人民意味着什么.

阅读更多巴黎人贵宾会官方网址美国助理检察官的信息

上面有乘法表的楼梯

《巴黎人贵宾会官方网址》

In 1975, 在美国,公立学校只招收了五分之一的残疾儿童. 许多州的法律明确将残疾儿童排除在公立学校之外. Professor Thomas Hehir reflects on the current state of disabilities education as we celebrate the 40th anniversary of IDEA.

播客成绩单▾
面试官: 1975年美国.S. public schools accommodated only one out of five children with disabilities. Many States had laws that explicitly excluded children with certain types of disabilities from attending school including children who were deaf and blind. 然而,1975年联邦立法的出台为我们的国家带来了巨大的变化. 1975年,Tom Hehir是一名教师, 40 years later Tom Hehir is still a teacher here at the Harvard Ed School. 现在和我们在一起,汤姆. 欢迎来到EdCast.
HEHIR马特:谢谢.
面试官: Tom in 1975 where were you and what was the state of disabilities education?
HEHIR1975年,我在弗雷明汉的基夫技术学校教书,那是一所地区性的声乐技术学校. 我是一名特殊教育老师. 我教的是残疾儿童. Massachusetts, I had a comprehensive special education law. 在联邦法律颁布前几年. So, a lot of what the Federal law did was already being done in Massachusetts, 哪一号, 最重要的是将教育扩展到所有残疾儿童. In 1975 I was working in a regional voc-tech school that was integrating kids with disabilities into the mainstream. 那时我还在一个青少年教育机构工作, 有残疾的青少年生活在国家机构里, getting those kids ready to be returned to their communities. 因为其中一件事, one of the most important accomplishments of IDEA was extending education, p艺术icular these students with intellectual disabilities, 也就是当时所说的智力迟钝. And here in Massachusetts which was the case virtually everywhere there were State institutions in which large numbers of those children were housed at that time. 估计是400个,000 children and adults mostly with intellectual disabilities, many with physical disabilities like Cerebral Palsy. 一些有心理健康问题的人在美国被送进了精神病院, 他们中的大多数人被关押在恶劣的条件下. Very few of the kids really got what you would call education today. So, I was working with kids in the community who had similar disabilities like Down’s syndrome and who were doing pretty well because they were being educated in the community. 马萨诸塞州的一些社区, 总是教育每个人都, 但是去你知道的机构, 放学后去看那些不识字的孩子, 有同样残疾的人不能说话因为他们被关押的环境. 所以,我认为IDEA最大的成就之一就是为所有的孩子提供教育. 他们估计全国有800人,000 and a million kids were completely excluded from school and that was very, 这在当时很常见.
面试官: So Massachusetts was a little bit ahead of the curve, but at the time in 1975 this was a big deal for the country and a little bit of history lesson about how this legislation came about, how it was kind of pushed through and how it’s changed in 40 years, 今年是它成立40周年.
HEHIR:是啊. From my perspective and I think other scholars would agree, that there were basically two things that were happening simultaneously. 一个, 你会很高兴认识马特的, 媒体人, 是因为媒体吗, was due to the fact that there had been exposes of these institutions. Most notably an expose done by Geraldo Rivera of Willowbrook which was the largest institution in the country and which was located in Staten Island. And he snuck in there with a camera and exposed the deplorable conditions. 这是对年轻听众来说媒体的一个有趣的看法. Back then there were only really three networks and if you were covered by one of them you were covered by three of them at the 6:00 nightly news, 这每个人都看. So, there was kind of a common media experience that people had. 所以, these exposes began being covered by the media. And the average American didn’t know these places existed and found it quite disgusting that the government was subjecting people to conditions that were you know, 恶劣和危险. 所以,你知道,这是一种政治流,谈论政策. 但, 同时你也知道, 考虑到这段时间你知道的, 在越南时期,在对现有权力结构存在许多质疑的时期. There were a number of lawsuits that were initiated by public interest, 法律组织, 一些倡导组织正在挑战学校对孩子的排斥, 根据第14修正案. 基本上说的是排除, 这个论点, 法律论证, which by the way hadn’t really prevailed up to this time because the 14th Amendment was around for a long time in 1975. 但, 在60年代末70年代初这些诉讼开始有利于原告所以他们会, 在宾夕法尼亚有一个大公园, where the state of Pennsylvania agreed to enter into consent agreement rather than go to court around the exclusion of children again, with intellectual disabilities in the State of Pennsylvania. So, there was a big state and the District of Columbia had a similar suit. So, 这些诉讼在法庭上进行,所以, 国会有兴趣把这个问题作为一个全国性的问题. 在IDEA通过之前发生的另一件事就是504节的通过, 前两年. Section 504 is Section 504 the Rehabilitation Act and it was through a simple reauthorization of that piece of legislation that advocates were successful in putting in just one clause in that, in that law which was that basically that any entity that received federal funds that discriminated against people with disabilities, 这是违法的. 所以, 这意义深远, very far reaching law and it was very much modeled after the Civil Rights, 64项民权法案等等. Which basically meant that school districts that didn’t enroll kids with disabilities were in violation of Section 504. 504部分通过了, 有一些诉讼正在进行, 这引起了媒体的关注, 但是你知道, 有必要向各学区提供援助,使其能够满足, 现在这变成了一种法律义务, 那就是教育所有的孩子. 因此,IDEA首先是一个资金带. 504号条款告诉你必须这么做. 它没有给你钱. And IDEA gave state’s money, but with a lot of strings. I mean you had to do individual, you had to find kids. 你必须做所谓的儿童查找. 你必须进行个性化教育. You had to give parents significant rights over the placement of their kids. 这是一部影响深远的法律,但它完全取决于各州是否接受这笔钱. The vast majority of States st艺术ed accepting money right away. Some of them took as long as 10 years to take IDEA money.
面试官四十年后它成功了吗? 你对结果满意吗? I know it’s nothing is ever ultimately perfect in all respects, but are you pleased in general and where can it be better? 它在哪里可以改进?
HEHIR: I think it’s a qualified success from my perspective. 我认为把教育扩展到所有的孩子是绝对成功的. I mean kids are better with education than without it. 但, we, there are still issues that I think need to be addressed. I think there’s still a lot of segregation of kids with disabilities that is unnecessary and contrary to what research would say would be the best practices for those kids. 我想有很多学区, there are kids who get identified as needing special education that really could have gotten other approaches in general education that would have been far more effective. And that’s p艺术icularly true for low income kids and kids of color. So, you know again, I think it’s a qualified success. I think there were some places that haven’t embraced, that still haven’t embraced the values of the law which are around inclusion, 为孩子们提供他们成功所需要的东西,从这个角度来看,我认为, I think there may be some things we need to do to ramp it up.
面试官汤姆,和你谈话总是很愉快. You’re always one of the best people in the world to talk about these issues. 你也出了一本书. 如果我不问你那件事,我就放心了.
HEHIR:是啊. 好吧, 我有几本书, 但是那个, my most recent book is about students with disabilities here at Harvard and when I first came to teach here in 2000, 他在克林顿政府工作过, I st艺术ed seeing students with disabilities in my classes. 当我还是这里的学生的时候,残疾的学生并不多,这对我来说很重要, a wonderful thing because my life’s work is about and so, 我开始问学生, 你知道我想听他们的故事. 你知道, 如果你一个字都没听过,还能写出漂亮的英语,你是怎么进巴黎人贵宾厅的, 你的第一语言是美国手语. 如果你因为脑瘫或看不见而不能说话,你要怎么去巴黎人贵宾厅? Or, you couldn’t learn to read because you had dyslexia. 我想知道他们的故事,因为, 当你想到进入巴黎人贵宾厅这样的学校必须达到的水平时, 在你的教育中,很多事情都是正确的,我想说的是在你的家庭中. 所以, 这本书的原型是我班上的16个学生他们都有各种各样的残疾. Disabilities that were obvious by first or second grade. 他们不是边缘的残障, 他们是你认识的学生, who I mentioned were deaf or students who could not learn how to read. Two of the students in the book have had suicide attempts, 有严重的心理健康问题, 因此,, 所以基本上这本书是巴黎人贵宾会官方网址你知道吗, you know if stories and for most of them IDEA was p艺术 of the story.
面试官:毫无疑问,受益于这项立法. 今天,我们在这里庆祝它成立40周年. 汤姆,感谢你来到EdCast.
HEHIR马特:好的.
面试官这里是巴黎人贵宾厅EdCast制作, the 巴黎人贵宾厅教育研究生院 and I’m your host Matt Weber. 感谢您的聆听.

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可访问性向前推

与巴黎人贵宾厅的专家们见面,他们正在努力确保每个人都能访问物理和数字空间.

“Testing a new sign and collecting feedback within our community is the most critical piece of the process because language is a living thing."

曼迪霍顿, project lead on a collaboration between Harvard’s Center for Integrated Quantum Materials (CIQM) and The Learning Center for the Deaf (TLC)

 

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两个人在做手语

[C]hanging the conversation and bringing disability bias to the front of the mind for the everyday person will be necessary to change that bias."

泰Charlesworth, 她是心理学系的博士后,研究对残疾的隐性偏见

泰Charlesworth外.

If you’re not testing with users who have disabilities, you’re missing a whole segment of the population; it would be like only testing with men.”

艾米Deschenes, head of UX and digital accessibility for Harvard Library

艾米Deschenes

想象一场飓风:残障人士将需要尽早获得庇护, 社会支持, 和医疗援助."

大卫Liebmann, 教育学院研究生,研究气候变化和残疾的交叉

大卫Liebmann

Technology companies are acknowledging that they can play a major role in assisting the underserved and the disabled."

Karae莱尔线, 巴黎人贵宾厅商学院校友,Vista盲人和视障人士中心的首席执行官, 提供评估的非营利组织, 咨询, 培训, 还有对视障人士的教育

Karae莱尔线

在我们的校园

探索我们正在采取的步骤,以确保巴黎人贵宾厅在可访问性方面处于领先地位.

如何成为盟友

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法学院建筑

如何成为一名人权倡导者

The 巴黎人贵宾厅法学院 Project on Disability lays out some steps you can take to become an advocate for yourself and your community.

从残疾项目了解更多信息

如何与残疾歧视作斗争

Learn what ableism is and how you can reduce it with this video from the 巴黎人贵宾厅肯尼迪学院 Women and Public Policy Program.


The grass and walkways in front of the Science and Engineering building

如何为各种人体设计空间

Four accessibility practitioners talk about ways to move the field forward.

从设计学院了解更多

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